«International Journal of Media and Information Literacy» – scientific E-journal.

E-ISSN 2500-106X

Publication frequency – once in 6 months. Issued from 2016.

1 June 18, 2021

1. Adamkolo Mohammed Ibrahim, Thi Phuong Vi
The Internet and Adolescent Safety: Peer Influence and Gender Difference as Potential Risk-Factors of Cyberbullying among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 4-16.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.4CrossRef

While adolescents in many nations across the world are getting exposed to various forms of cyberbullying and online harms, little attention has been devoted to examining the implications of gender and peer influence in secondary school adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying in Nigeria. Addressing this void in the literature, the present study investigated the internet use pattern and peer victimisation among 992 secondary school adolescents in the fourth to sixth (senior) grades (age ranging from 15 to 17 years; males = 55.9 %). The data were collected using a questionnaire with a very high alpha coefficient of α = .92 and analysed using SPSS (v. 22). The findings revealed an alarmingly high incidence level (76 %) and that more male adolescents were involved in cyber victimisation and more female adolescents in cyber predation, a quite surprising phenomenon as far as the Nigerian school context is concerned. The results of the study highlight the importance of gender difference, peer influence and the degree of internet use as potential risk factors of cyberbullying among Nigerian in-school adolescents.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624029853.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

2. Miral Sabri AlAshry
A Comparative Analysis of the Reportage of Covid-19 During the First and Second Wave: A Case of the Egyptian and Jordanian Newspapers

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 17-33.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.17CrossRef

This study investigated online newspaper coverage of COVID-19 in Egypt and Jordan, with particular attention to the depth of coverage. The main objective of the study was to examine the content of news covering COVID-19 posted online concerning Egyptian and Jordanian newspapers, to know which countries were more interested and committed to covering health crises. A content analysis of 4202 news articles by four news media organizations: Al-Ahram, youm7, Al-Rai, and Addustour was done. The findings of the study indicated that the Al-Ahram, youm7 in wave one was in-depth coverage, as compared to Al-Rai and Addustour coverage. In addition, Al-Rai and Addustour used a negative panic tone in presenting COVID-19 pandemic-related stories, in contrast to the Al-Ahram, youm7. Finally, Al-Rai and Addustour focused on reporting stories and raising awareness in waves one and two more than Al-Ahram and youm7. Based on these findings: the following recommendations were made: the media should focus more on sensitising the public on the necessary steps to take in curbing the virus. They should refrain from over usage of a negative tone to panic the public in presenting the stories of the COVID-19 pandemic in both countries.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624030038.pdf
Number of views: 84      Download in PDF

3. Farahat Ali, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Faran
Social Media Use and Political Polarization: The Mediating Role of Political Engagement and Political Loyalty

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 17-33.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.17CrossRef

This study examines how usage of social media influence political polarization. Using data from the students of different public and private universities of Lahore, this study investigates the association between usage of social media and political polarization and proposes that political engagement and political loyalty can be potential mediators between the relationship of social media usage and political polarization (issue based, leadership based, and party based). Correlation research design was used to collect the data. A sample of 350 students were taken through purposive sampling technique. Smart Partial least square 3.2.7 has been used to analyze and test the conceptual model. Findings show that usage of social media has significant direct effect on political engagement and political loyalty. In addition to this, social media usage is a significant predictor of political polarization. Results further show that indirect effect of social media usage on polarization was mediated by political engagement and party loyalty. We observed that more usage of social media helps the participants to engage in politics and identify themselves with a certain political party. This study has highlighted the role of social media in motivating the users towards political participation. This high-level users’ participation on social networking sites is creating ideological divergence. The implications of these findings have been discussed in detail.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624030392.pdf
Number of views: 82      Download in PDF

4. Yarileisy Barcelay Ramírez, Natalia S. Gegelova, Alexander A. Grabelnikov
A Study of the Reflection of Current Russian-Cuban Relationship in the Content on the Online News of the Cuban News Agency Prensa Latina

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 46-56.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.46CrossRef

This study is developed on the basis of a current scenario in which Russian-Cuban relationship continues to strengthen. In this context, the official digital media of both countries play an important role in shaping the image of both states in current geopolitical conditions. This research analyzes the reflection of Russian-Cuban relationship in the current stage, taking into account the content of the news on the website of the Cuban news agency Prensa Latina. For this, a sample of intentional type (N = 453) was systematically analyzed (from July to August 2020), corresponding to the news published from January to July 2020 by Prensa Latina on its website in which Russia is mentioned. The methodology used allowed and helped the analysis of thematic content and the analysis of semantic content on the texts of Prensa Latina, combining qualitative and quantitative techniques, which showed that in the media agenda of Prensa Latina, during 2020, a higher priority was given to political issues, related to Russia, than to economy issues and society issues. Also, it was observed that in the content of Prensa Latina presents the political, economic and social news on Russia, in a way to make and create a positive image about Russia as a strong state on the readers. Thus, the political discourse reflects the current diplomatic relationship between the two governments at a high level.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624030450.pdf
Number of views: 86      Download in PDF

5. Tatiana V. Byundyugova, Anna V. Babikova, Elena V. Kornienko
Formation and Development of Digital Literacy of the Population Based on Visualization Technologies

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 57-65.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.57CrossRef

This study examines the formation and development of information literacy skills of the population in the context of the penetration of information and communication technologies in all spheres of activity and the formation of a global digital space. The analysis of the scientific literature showed a significant interest of scientists in the category of information literacy of various population groups. Based on the analysis, it was revealed that most attention is paid to the development of information literacy among young people. Schools, colleges and universities successfully teach young people modern technologies. As a result of the study, it was revealed that there are practically no training programs aimed at middle-aged people, although they are the active users of information technologies both in everyday life and in professional activities. Based on the results of the review, the study of modern visual techniques for the development of digital skills and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of such training in different conditions can be proposed for subsequent research. In the course of the survey of respondents, three groups of people were identified, to varying degrees focused on the digital environment. The results show that Respondents who are highly focused on the digital environment most often use it in a functional version: they use it exclusively for paying bills, receiving services from the state. Those who are on average focused on the digital environment, most often try to self-actualize in it, to find conditions for self-development. They have the most constructive and creative attitude to the possibility of using it. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were proposed for training centers on the use of visualization technologies, which will help significantly improve the efficiency and quality of information literacy development in middle-aged people.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624030525.pdf
Number of views: 81      Download in PDF

6. Selma L. Capinzaiki Ottonicar, Marta L. Pomim Valentim, France Bouthillier
From Business Information Literacy to Decision-Making, Problem Solving and Innovation

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 66-77.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.66CrossRef

In the international literature, business information literacy refers to information literacy in the business context. Most of the research in this field focuses on university libraries, thus there is a gap in the literature with respect to business information literacy in industry and competitive organizations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of the art about business information literacy, and it aims to identify how researchers have studied business information literacy in businesses. The method is a systematic literature review in international scientific databases. After the analysis of the systematic literature protocol, we included 26 papers that discuss business information literacy. These papers show that business information literacy research focuses on business management libraries and related fields. This paper concludes that libraries contribute to business management curricula, and students can develop critical thinking and lifelong learning. Similarly, members of business organizations can use business information literacy to develop critical thinking for decision-making and problem-solving.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624030598.pdf
Number of views: 69      Download in PDF

7. Anfal Khadidja Dekhil, Hanane Sarnou
Investigating the Effect of TikTok App on the Transmission of Cultural Values in Algeria: A Case Study of Algerian Youngsters

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 77-87.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.77CrossRef

The current study revolves around the use of TikTok application by Algerian teenagers, highlighting its specific type of communication (nonverbal communication) that has significant effects on the transmission and communication of cultural values among generations, as it leads further to unequal online practices and behaviours. In this insight, at first, we established the link between the historical evolution of language in TikTok as a modern social media platform and its hidden effects on Algerian teenagers’ cultural values. We attempted to make its users aware of the behaviours and habits decline in their cultural values and how it could influence them unconsciously. To reach our goal, we conducted the research study with 116 Algerian teenagers to confirm or nullify our hypotheses; and to collect the appropriate data we employed an ethnographic research method using online observation and online questionnaire as research tools. The results indicated that the nonverbal language used in TikTok application is a weak tool for communication. It has disturbed the flow of the local cultural values among adolescents because TikTok is enabling its users to create their content which is a factor that contributes to losing their cultural values and traditional standards by sharing useless and funny content.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624030936.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

8. Ludvík Eger, Dana Egerová, Lukasz Tomczyk, Miroslav Krystoň
How Universities Communicate with Public Using Facebook Page

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 88-99.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.88CrossRef

Social media has been identified as an important vehicle in fostering social connections that maintain and expand existing relationships between organizations and their customers and stakeholders. This research was conducted on top public universities from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland, with a focus on their communication activities on Facebook. First, quantitative data analysis was conducted using the data mining tool Netvizz. The research is unique as measurement using Netvizz is currently not possible due to technical limitations on the most popular social network. Data obtained from 24 Facebook profiles of selected universities were used. Second, the expert evaluation and content analysis were used to examine how the posts influence audience. The findings provide evidence on the use of Facebook by universities for communication with public and show differences among universities. The findings also support an integrated view of content marketing and highlight the importance of adjusting the content strategy to suit the utilitarian nature of higher education institutions and engage high-involvement target groups. The collected data also show that the most popular posts on SNS are not directly related to research conducted at individual universities. Paradoxically, communication strategies of universities through social networking sites are deprived of the most important element – the university mission, i.e. dissemination of research results

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031018.pdf
Number of views: 81      Download in PDF

9. Abul Hassan, Mohsin Hassan Khan, Djezair Ziberi
Communication Barriers and Process of Feedback in Social Interaction

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 100-110.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.100CrossRef

Barriers in a communication process hinder the intended feedback which, if not sent back to the message sender, disperse in the surrounding. This study intends to relate those communication barriers with the message-receiver, who instead of sharing his or her views back to the message-sender, contends to disseminate it among peer groups and social media platforms. The study conducted in-depth interviews of 9 students who were scrutinized as message receivers in their communication roles of parents-children, teacher-student, and religious scholars-religious follower. Five communication barriers; cultural, psychological, educational, economic, and religion were analyzed as hindering factors in a smooth communication process. The study found out that people, if suppressed for their feedback opinion, contend to multiple channels to do catharsis, consoling their ideology and attain resonating responses. Intra-communication, peer groups, and social media are those platforms that initiate a free flow of information from different message-receivers who could not give their feedback to the real message-sender due to pressure of cultural patterns, psychological divergence, educational incompatibilities, economic limitations, and religious conventions. Hence, the feedback message which was supposed to be shared with the parents, teachers, and religious scholars, reaches other segments of society which are not directly related to the particular communication.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031094.pdf
Number of views: 69      Download in PDF

10. Anna Khanina, Alexandr Zimovets, Tatiana Maksimenko
The Role of Media and Information Literacy during COVID-19 Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Period

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 111-118.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.111CrossRef

Media and information literacy in the modern world is a set of skills, abilities that allow users to analyze media messages broadcast through the media and the Internet, the ability to critically approach the received data and perceived information. The COVID-19 pandemic that swept the whole world in the spring of 2020 forced all the population of the planet to use the worldwide network and the media actively, because they became the main source of information and a means of communication. This fact was also used by "ill-wishers" who launched false information about the statistics of those infected with the new virus, about the means of fighting it and much more. It was information literacy and critical thinking that allowed the population not to succumb to fake news and not to lose their heads. As shown by the authors' survey, the time that the population spent on the Internet before the pandemic was less than the time that it began to spend on the Internet after the announcement of the total quarantine. This can be explained simply – people had no other means of communication. However, as it was revealed as a result of the survey, people after the lifting of the quarantine regime, especially between the ages of 20 and 25, do not want to spend so much time at electronic space. According to the authors, the reason for this fact was the increased media literacy of this category for the population. People have learned to filter information flows, think critically and be skeptical about news. Nevertheless, many have switched to a distant work format and do not want to return to the previous offline mode, and for them, it is also necessary to develop media communications and increase their information literacy.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031284.pdf
Number of views: 82      Download in PDF

11. Mariana Kitsa
Media as a Source of Popular Science Information during COVID-19 Pandemic

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 119-128.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.119CrossRef

Popular science journalism is an effective method of communication between the scientific community and ordinary people. In the article it is considered popular science media as an important part of mediaspace. On the basis of overview of Ukrainian media, it is done the analysis of the current situation with popular science information in media. To understand the expectations of audience it was conducted the survey (N = 200). Thus it was determined the role of scientific information for the audience, as well as identified relevant methods of presenting scientific information. The survey showed that popular science journalism plays an important role in the lives of Ukrainians. Especially it is actual during world pandemic, when citizens want to know about the newest means of treating from COVID-19. Most respondents, as expected, actively use the Internet to learn about the latest advances in science and technology. As it turned out, Ukrainians read not only domestic publications, but also foreign ones, but there are still respondents who are poorly oriented in the topic, are not informed in the current situation with new in science and in particular with the COVID-19 researchings.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031337.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

12. Anastasia Levitskaya, Alexander Fedorov
Criteria and Methods for Assessing the Effectiveness of Activities, Contributing to the Development of Students' Media Competence in the Process of Analyzing Media Manipulative Influences

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 129-145.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.129CrossRef

Based on the analysis of scientific literature and specific media educational experience, this article concludes that the characteristics of the criteria for a high level of activity efficiency, contributing to the development of students' media competence in the process of analyzing media manipulative influences, are as follows: - motivational criterion of the teacher's activity (versatile motives of media education: emotional, epistemological, hedonistic, moral, aesthetic, etc.; striving to improve their knowledge and skills in the field of media education); - contact criterion of the teacher's activity (weekly classes from classrooms in the process of media educational activities, contributing to the development of students' media competence in the process of analyzing media manipulative influences); - information criterion of the teacher's activity (systematic awareness, extensive theoretical and pedagogical knowledge in the field of media and media education, typology and essence of media manipulations); - technological criterion of the teacher's activity (developed technological skills in the field of media and media educational activities, contributing to the development of students' media competence in the process of analyzing media manipulative influences); - evaluative criterion of the teacher's activity (comprehensive knowledge of the methods of assessing the knowledge and skills of students in the field of media education and analysis of media manipulative influences); - practical and operational criterion for the teacher's activity (high quality of practical media educational activity, contributing to the development of students' media competence in the process of analyzing media manipulative influences); - creative criterion for a teacher's activity (a pronounced level of creativity in media educational activities, contributing to the development of students' media competence in the process of analyzing media manipulative influences).

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031397.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

13. Elena A. Makarova, Elena L. Makarova, Vera I. Mishchenko
Phenomena of Loneliness and Fear Caused by the Mass Media Threat in the Situation of COVID-19 Pandemic

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 146-155.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.146CrossRef

Recent research shows significant effects of the pandemic COVID-19 situation information in mass media on the population’s mental health. These effects have to be impartially assessed and thoroughly analyzed in order to prevent mental and psychosomatic diseases, maladjustment to restrictions caused by a lockdown. Social media platforms are among the most widely used sources of information in the world, the easy and inexpensive access to the internet and a large number of social networks make them the most effective ways to disseminate information. The problem is that this information may be truthful or fake. Mass media play a crucial role in people’s lives in regular situation and is especially significant in the situation of lockdown due to COVID-19 spreading. It is obvious that for complete understanding of people’s anxiety and unexplainable fear social surveys using standard psychological tools should be used, although special scales for evaluating pandemic effects on people’s lives have not been created yet. The authors emphasize the need to take into account qualitative analysis of the entire completeness of stress effects in a situation of pandemic (virtual threat and information stress, deprivation, self-isolation, loneliness, socio-economic stress) and suggest a means to prevent stress-associated mental and psychosomatic disorders.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031610.pdf
Number of views: 79      Download in PDF

14. April R. Manabat
Bringing MIL into the Margins: Introducing Media and Information Literacy at the Outskirts

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 156-165.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.156CrossRef

With the vast amount of information readily available online, not to mention the gaining popularity and use of social media platforms and the rampant proliferation of alternative facts and news fabrication that affects decision-making, it is indeed empirical for everyone to be media and information literate. More true in it sense, people living in areas with limited or no internet access at all should be more critical and analytical about every information they encounter as this may affect their perspectives on things and life in general. This paper documents how media and information literacy was promoted and introduced to selected Senior High School (SHS) students and teachers of Loyola College of Culion (LCC) in Isla Culion, Palawan, Philippines. The effectiveness of the seminar-workshops conducted among the participants was also determined as well as their working knowledge on MIL through some tests and group activities. This case study also revealed that the participants’ working knowledge has increased after being exposed to the lectures and activities. Furthermore, the participants highlighted how they found MIL valuable in critically evaluating sources of information and how to use social media responsibly. In addition, the participants found the seminar-workshop engaging and recommended to have more sessions like this in improved in the future.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031664.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

15. Bashir Memon, Muhammad Ibrahim Mirbahar, Rashid Ali Khuhro
News Literacy and Content Contribution: A Survey of University Students in Pakistan

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 166-175.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.166CrossRef

News is the foundation of the media. The main function of news is to update the people and based on that they make decisions. Thus, the public needs to know about what news is. What are its functions? What is the credibility of news sources and the medium it is circulated? The public can get an insight into the above questions through news literacy. News media literacy is a specific part of media literacy. In this way, the purpose of this is to assess the news media literacy level of the students and their knowledge about the production of news media content. The researchers used a cross-sectional survey to collect data from purposively selected students of three leading public sector universities of Sindh, province of Pakistan. The findings exhibited that students at the public sector universities in Sindh province of Pakistan are literate about news and they know about contribution. The contributed content for media organizations particularly for traditional media in the content genres like articles, features, and writing letters to the editors and contributed for social media in the form of texts, photos, audio, and video clips as well. The studies related to media literacy should be conducted in other universities of Pakistan.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624031963.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF

16. Andrei Novikov
International Journal of Media and Information Literacy: Five-year Anniversary

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 176-181.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.176CrossRef

In June 2021, the International Journal of Media and Information Literacy celebrated its fifth anniversary and has come a long way from being a completely unknown publication in Europe and the world to becoming a prestigious journal indexed in Scopus (Q3) that publishes authors from dozens of countries around the world. This review article is devoted to the most significant areas of publication activity of this journal, its most characteristic trends and topics. The Journal's fifth anniversary is a good occasion to remember how it began and how it developed. Already in the first issues of the journal it became apparent that the leading researchers in the field of media education are interested in it. For example, American professor Art Silverblatt, author of several editions of Media Literacy, wrote that “Information Literacy applies critical thinking skills to the assessment of Information. Media Literacy is a critical thinking skill that is applied to the source of most of our information - the channels of mass communication” (Silverblatt, 2016: 55). We think that this provision can be called key to the general concept of the International Journal of Media and Information Literacy.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624032181.pdf
Number of views: 71      Download in PDF

17. Ida Rosida, Muhammad Azwar
YouTube as a New Culture in Indonesia: The Construction of Gender Role in the Lens of the Circuit of Culture

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 182-192.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.182CrossRef

This study explores the construction of gender roles performed in The Irvandi's YouTube channel. By deploying cultural studies approach and working within the framework of the circuit of culture by Stuart Hall, this study aims to show how gender role is regulated, produced, consumed, and represented, which then constructs Indonesian women's identity. The result shows that the gender role is regulated through religion by which Islamic teachings are applied in her daily life and the social construction rooted within the patriarchal ideology. Next, the video's content is produced as the content creator accepts the gender roles tightly related to the regulation. Further, the video is consumed by its viewer where power, ideology, gender, and social class have shaped each other. Within its consumption, the video reveals the gender stereotyping and brings the effect of empowering women. As an interrelated element, the circuit of culture represents Indonesian women as ideal Muslim women (shaleha). The identity of women in the video is constructed through representation. She constructs her identity as a religious woman and shaleha. Besides, showing viewers where she usually buys home furnishing products indicates that she shows her middle social class. In conclusion, YouTube has become a new culture in Indonesia and has created an Islamic cultural industry as the content is presenting a series of images, practices, and religious values which is marketed especially to Muslim women. Then, this kind of YouTube video is re-strengthening and re-emphasizing the role of women in the family. The differentiation of roles between men and women is reconstructed and reproduced within this online video sharing platform.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1626865400.pdf
Number of views: 231      Download in PDF

18. Volodymyr Sadivnychyi, Mykola S. Nazarov, Andrii E. Lebid, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
People’s Information Security during a Pandemic and in the Post-Pandemic Period as a Systemic Phenomenon in Terms of Their Protectedness

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 193-200.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.193CrossRef

This paper shares the findings from a study that assessed the level of a person’s information security during a pandemic and in the post-pandemic period. The base for the study was advertising and textual and visual content with theoretical-academic, practical-medical, cultural-educational, social, and social-political narratives containing information about COVID-19, an acute respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The authors analyzed materials from leading media outlets in Ukraine, Russia, the UK, Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Spain, and Italy and from the official website of the World Health Organization (WHO). For a better insight into the ongoing processes, the following key groups of threats to one’s information security wereidentified: another person, groups of people, collectives, masses, and social institutions; programming and technical means and information-telecommunications systems; structured channels for dissemination of mass information. The more tangible impacts on one’s information security within the specialized information space segment were investigated in the third group of threats, namely at the level of analysis of structured channels for dissemination of mass information. Based on their analysis of the latest information flows, the authors developed a special socio-communication model for ensuring a person’s security in times of epidemics and crises that covers principles of informing the public such as filling the information space with various conceptual markers; ensuring proper professional-information interpretation of various phenomena and processes; undertaking the innovative enhancement of the sphere of information production and diffusion; ensuring a universal individual nature. The authors suggest that the study of content in local, regional, statewide, and international media resources potentially can serve as a crucial knowledge base for comprehending all significant characteristics of informing the public in times of societal disruption. The authors’ exploration of information flowing across multiple media channels helped them gain a better understanding of the need for and utility ofverifying and fact-checking information to ensure the meeting of information needs and proper performance of relevant roles in society, with the following key characteristics of good information identified: value, relevance, objectivity, reliability, completeness, comprehensibility, and adequacy.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624034489.pdf
Number of views: 75      Download in PDF

19. Hamza Shaheen, Farahat Ali, Muhammad Awais, Muzammil Saeed
Health-Related Information Seeking During COVID-19: Testing the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking on University Students of Pakistan

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 201-210.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.201CrossRef

The study revolves around online health related information seeking. Hypothetically, the use of social media and other internet-based platforms is becoming common. This information seeking behavior further leads to self-medication which can be dangerous, so it requires theoretical attention. While many studies have been conducted to cover this behavior, there was a need to explore this area in the context of Pakistan. Internet is the focus of this study which is further sub-categorized into other media forms like Social Media, Google Search, Online Web T.V./Radio and E-Magazines/Papers. Data was gathered using purposive sampling technique from the intended population (N = 300) and to examine the data. Findings of this study indicated that the relationship of information-carrier characteristics and online health information seeking was significantly mediated by utility of information channel. On the other hand, utility was significantly predicted by beliefs, interest, and information-carrier characteristics. Furthermore, direct experience and salience are not significant predictors of utility of online health information seeking. The study also helped elaborating the extensions of comprehensive model of information seeking, which are helpful in applying this model in context of the latest digital media.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624034839.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

20. Olha A. Shvaher, Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lybov G. Polyakova
The Effect of Social Media on Financial Literacy

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 211-218.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.211CrossRef

What makes the issue of financial literacy relevant to various social groups and the State as a whole today is the dynamic development of the market for financial services, the rapid and extensive digitalization of such services, and changes in the structure of the market caused by the emergence of new segments and new actors. A financially literate consumer will make well-informed, responsible decisions in relation to services provided by financial institutions. Financial literacy has a direct effect both on the wellbeing of a particular individual and on wellbeing across society and the State as a whole. It tends to take on particular significance at a time of certain crisis situations. The recent COVID-19 pandemic situation has brought into clear view both the significance of requirements for the establishment of effective forms of disclosure of information in the market for financial services and the need to expand the information instrumentarium intended to improve the financial literacy of the population. Many countries have in place comprehensive legislation on protecting the rights of financial consumers, as well as relevant case law. However, that alone does not resolve most of the quite specific objectives for enhancing financial literacy – and, consequently, does not protect the population from various risks and unjustified financial losses. The authors argue that it is the use of social media – as the more sought-after and mass way to spread information in today’s world – that will help expand the audience of recipients of financial education. The paper analyzes a set of factors that influence the process of boosting the role of social media channels inimproving the financial literacy of the population and examines a set of relevant resources and tools employed in various countries to build an infrastructure for financial education. The authors also discuss the need to devote attention to the arrangement of educational activities for financially isolated and undereducated strata of the population and, in this context, focus on the right choice of media channels and means of financial education to ensure equal access to financial products and services.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624032926.pdf
Number of views: 75      Download in PDF

21. Larysa Shevchenko, Dmytro Syzonov, Olga Pliasun, Volodymyr Shmatko
Media Literacy Research During COVID-19 Pandemic: Social Network Screening

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 219-230.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.219CrossRef

The article presents screening of Facebook and Instagram news pages for the degree of media literacy of modern recipients in the perception and further dissemination of information about COVID-19. We state that in most cases modern recipients do not check the information obtained from media sources (as confirmation, we present the results of an electronic survey). Nowadays most respondents do not pay attention to the information provided and are ready to repost the material on their social media pages. The data obtained confirm this thesis: 45.8 % partially 23.7 % fully do not check the information from media sources, therefore, almost two thirds of respondents trust the facts presented in media. We associate low media literacy with the rapid globalization of modern media, due to which the flow of information is uncontrolled, especially in Internet communication. Another reason for low media literacy is the "skill" of journalists to mislead recipients through bright headlines. It is proved that a bright headline, compositionally organized as an interrogative or exclamatory sentence, has a greater impact than a narrative construction. According to our survey, headlines with lexical manipulative resources are the most popular (44 %), while headlines with phonetic manipulative means are less affected by the recipient. Most of the interviewed recipients are still ready to check the factuality of the information in a media text (we emphasize that we have deliberately selected fake news). Some recipients (22 %) pay attention to fake news because of a bright headline (or trusting a verified media resource) and are ready to repost the news without verification. Due to the resonance of the news related to COVID-19 journalists have used not only objective but also fake news as a tool to influence the recipient. The questionnaire clearly indicates that media literacy of modern recipients is influenced by the political orientation of a media source, as well as the recklessness of recipients to verify the facts and trust any information obtained from official sources and interpreted in media.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624033095.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF

22. C. Syamili, R.V. Rekha
Twitter and Social Movement: An Analysis of Tweets in Response to the #metoo Challenge

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 231-238.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.231CrossRef

Twitter as a social tool is helpful to measure the sentiments of people, be it the death of any personality, a mass protest, epidemic or natural calamity. The current study observes how effective Twitter to assess the sentiments of people amidst the #metoo campaign. Twitter users were found to be very vigorous and highly responsive during #metoo campaign. There has been overwhelming participation of media and online websites as well as individuals on this movement. With the participation of diverse Twitter handles, #metoocampaign was conversed in 400 tweets during study period. Along with these hash tags #withu, #resist, #womenpower, #believewomen, #womensmarch, #womeninstem, #feminism, #imwithher also used. All these hash tags convey messages related to women empowerment and feminism. The major sentiment involved in the movement is related to sexuality. Rehab, abuse Justice and harassment are also the most common emotion shared in these tweets. There is not much tweets about Men and kids.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624033197.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

23. Marina Tselykh
Forbidden Soviet Cinema (1951-1991): A View from the 21st Century

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy. 2021. 6(1): 239-245.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2021.1.239CrossRef

In 2021 the Publishing House SM "Information for All" published a book by Professor Alexander Fedorov "Record holders of the banned Soviet cinema (1951-1991) in the mirror of film criticism and viewers' opinions" (Fedorov, 2021). In this interview with Professor Marina Tselykh, Alexander Fedorov discussed the reasons for which films were banned, shelved or interrupted at various stages of their production in the USSR, how audiences reacted to the release of such "shelf" films during "perestroika," and other aspects of the topic. After reading this book it becomes clear how difficult was the fate of Soviet film directors, screenwriters and actors. The lives of some of the most talented filmmakers were ruined... For example, Alexander Askoldov was banned from working in the film industry for twenty years after his film "Commissar" was shot. And Soviet many films have been banned from cinemas and television or stopped while they were still in the making. And this despite the fact that many of them had real artistic value, were masterfully filmed.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1624033351.pdf
Number of views: 73      Download in PDF

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